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Wednesday, September 21, 2011

Algerian dinar of Algeria

Algeria, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria (Al Jumhuriyah al Jazairiyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah), also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.

In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa, the Arab World and of the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea; it is also the tenth-largest country in the world.[14] The country is bordered in the northeast by Tunisia, in the east by Libya, in the west by Morocco, in the southwest by Western Sahara, Mauritania, and Mali, in the southeast by Niger, and in the north by the Mediterranean Sea. Its size is almost 2,400,000 square kilometres (926,645 sq mi) with an estimated population of 36.3 million as of 2011.

The dinar was introduced on 1 April 1964, replacing the Algerian new franc at par.


Albanian lek of Albania

Albania  officially known as the Republic of Albania  is a country in Southeast Europe, in the Balkans region. It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[a] to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the west, and on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. It is less than 72 km (45 mi) from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which links the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea. Albania is a member of the UN, NATO, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Council of Europe, World Trade Organisation, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and one of the founding members of the Union for the Mediterranean. Albania has been a potential candidate for accession to the European Union since January 2003, and it formally applied for EU membership on 28 April 2009.

Albania is a parliamentary democracy with a transition economy. The Albanian capital, Tirana, is home to approximately 600,000 of the country's 3,000,000 people. Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania was chosen as the top country in Lonely Planet's list of ten top countries to visit for 2011.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

Specifications of Flowing Hair dollar

Value 1.00 United States dollar
Mass  26.96 g  (416 gr)
Diameter  39–40 mm  (1.53–1.57 in)
Edge Lettered
Composition 90.00% Ag
10.00% Cu
Years of minting 1794–1795

The first American Dollar

The United States dollar also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies. The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution. In that context, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U.S. Congress adopted legislation titled An act establishing a mint, and regulating the Coins of the United States. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, and to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States.
Dollar Coin
Dollar coins have been minted in the United States in gold, silver, and base metal versions. The term silver dollar is often used for any large white metal coin issued by the United States with a face value of one dollar, although purists insist that a dollar is not silver unless it contains some of that metal. Silver dollars, the first dollar coin issue, were minted beginning in 1794. Before the Revolutionary War, coins from many European nations circulated freely in the American colonies, as well as coinage issued by the various colonies. Chief among these was the Spanish silver dollar coins (also called pieces of eight or eight reales) minted in Mexico and other colonies with silver mined from Central and South American mines. These coins, along with others of similar size and value, were in use throughout the colonies, and later the United States, and were legal tender until 1857. In 1776, the Continental Congress authorized plans to produce a silver coin to prop up the rapidly failing Continental—the first attempt by the fledgling US at paper currency. Several examples were struck in brass, pewter, and silver, but a circulating coin was not produced, due in large part to the financial difficulties of running the Revolutionary War. The Continental Dollar bears a date of 177of Spanish dollars performed, as that was the coin upon which the United States monetary system would bename has stuck. The failure of the Continental exacerbated a distrust of paper money amongst both politicians and the populace at large. Beginning in the 1780s, a number of prominent Americans called for the establishment of a central mint to supply the United States with official coinage 416 grains, the balance being copper. On March 3, 1791, after reviewing Hamilton's report, Congress passed a joint resolution authorizing a federal mint; the resolution, however, gave no specifics or appropriations . Later that year, in his third State of the Union address, President George Washington urged Congress to provide for a mint, which was officially authorized by the Coinage Act of 1792. Despite the authorization, silver and gold coins were not struck until 1794. The first silver dollars were struck on October 15, 1794. The Flowing Hair dollar was the first dollar coin issued by the United States federal government. The coin was minted in 1794 and 1795; its size and weight were based on the Spanish dollar. In the early 1990s, numismatic historian Jack Collins estimated the surviving number of the coins to be between 120 and 130.

Friday, April 15, 2011

1977, 5 paise Commemorative Coin

This is a 1977 5 paise commemorative coin .This was the second commemorative five paise  coin after 1976 first commemorative five paise  coin.The theme for this commemorative coin is "SAVE FOR DEVELOPMENT" .It is an aluminium series coin.The weight of the coin is 1.5 gram and the diametric length is 22mm.
In the year 1977 March - The first non-Congress government sweeps to power following Indira Gandhi's defeat at the general elections and  Morarji Desai becomes prime minister.The government wanted to convey an idea to the people that if you save money that can be used in the development of the country.

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Reserve Bank Of India Golden Jublee 50 Paise coin

The Reserve Bank of India  is the central banking system of India and controls the monetary policy of the rupee  as well as foreign  currency reserves The institution was established on 1 April 1935 during the British-Raj in accordance with the provisions of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 .The Reserve Bank of India was set up on the recommendations of the Hilton Young Commission. The commission submitted its report in the year 1926, though the bank was not set up for another nine years.The Central Office of the Reserve Bank was initially established in Kolkata, Bengal, but was permanently moved to Mumbai in 1937. The Reserve Bank has continued to act as the central bank for Myanmar till Japanese occupation of Burma  and later up to April 1947, though Burma seceded from Indian Union in 1937. After the partition, the Reserve bank served as the central bank for Pakistan  up to June 1948 when the State Bank of Pakistan commenced operations. Though originally set up as a shareholder's bank, the RBI has been fully owned by the Government of India since its nationalization in 1949.



This 50 paise  commemorative coin  was issued on the golden jubilee of  Reserve Bank of India in the December,1982.It is a copper-nickel coin ( 75% Cupper + 25% Nickel ).It was quite different to the prevailing 50 paisa coin .The diameter of the coin was 24mm and its weight is 5 grams.

On one side of the coin is depicted the logo of RBI “tiger under a palm tree” and  Reserve Bank of India is written in english as well as in hindi.The word " golden jubile" is written in the bottom in hindi as well as in english. The span that marked the 100 yrs of RBI is too written on the coin.(1935-1985).On the other side of the coin the denomination is written along with the 'Ashoka Sthamba' and below the 'Ashoka  Sthamba' the slogan 'satyamev jaytae' is written which means 'Truth Always Triumphs' .Based on this a question was asked in the gameshow of the movie 'Slumdog Millenaire'-The famous oscar winning movie.

The other 3 coins in the same theme, were issued in the denomination of 100 rupees, 10 rupees and 2 rupees as proof specimens.This is a very rare coin and is very rare piece.

9th Asian Games 25 paisa coin



In 1982 a copper-nickel 25 paisa commemorative coin was issued by the Indian Government on the occasion of 9th Asian Games ,in Delhi.The 9th Asian Games were held from November 19, 1982 to December 4, 1982 in Delhi, India. This was the second time the Games were held in Delhi as it was also host to the inaugural 1951 Asian Games. New Delhi joined Bangkok (four times) as the only cities to host multiple editions of the Asian Games.The Delhi Asian Games was the first Asiad to be held under the aegis of the Olympic Council of Asia The mascot for the Games was Appu – a kid elephant. Known in real life as "Kuttinarayanan", this elephant fractured its leg in an accident when he was seven years old – he stepped into a septic tank. That wound would not heal and it eventually killed him. Kuttinarayanan died on May 14, 2005.Appu is not depicted on the coin
  

It is a normal size 25 paisa coin having a diameter of 19mm.Having a weight 2.5 gm.On one side the logo for 1982 Asian Games is depicted  with the word "IX ASIAN GAMES" written on one side of the logo and "नवम एशियाई खेल" written on the other side of the logo.THe word DELHI is inscribed at the bottom only in english and below this year is inscribed.The Jantar Mantar of Delhi is used in the logo.The Yantra Mantra often called the Jantar Mantar  located in the modern city of New Delhi, Delhi. It consists of 13 architectural astronomy instruments, built by Maharaja Jai Singh II of Jaipur, from 1724 onwards

Chatrapati Shivaji coin 1999


A 2 rupees commemorative copper-nickel coin was issued in the respect of Chatrapati Shivaji Mahraj in 1999.This coin was minted in Noida mint.It was the second time when any coin beard the image of  any historic figure from the medieval period.Earlier a commerative coin bearing an image of  Saint Thiruvalluvar was issued in the year 1995.
This coin was issued when NDA party came into power with absolute majority in 1999.NDA comprise of 13 political parties at that time of whuch Shiv-Sena was a important member with a descent number of MPs. Shiv-Sena being an ardent supporter of Chatrapati Shivaji Mahraj may have caused this issue of this coin.

 

Shivaji with the royal title Chatrapati Shivaji Maharaj  was a Maratha king who founded the Maratha kingdom. He became the crowned king 'Chatrapati' of the Maratha Kingdom in 1674,because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later. He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history. School texts in India describe Shivaji Maharaj's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity and infusing it with strong martial and moral traditions.

Sardar Patel 2 rupee Commemorative Coin

This is a 1996 Commemorative Coin issued in the respect of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.Vallabhbhai Jhaverbhai Patel was born at his maternal uncle's house Desai Vago in Nadiad in Leva Patidar  Gurjar on 31 October 1875 .He was  the first Home Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of India  he is  hailed as the Iron Man of India.In the 1946 election for the Congress presidency, Patel stepped down in favor of Nehru at the request of Gandhi. The election's importance stemmed from the fact that the elected President would lead free India's first Government. Gandhi asked all 16 states representatives and Congress to elect the right person and Sardar Patel's name was proposed by 13 states representatives out of 16, but Patel respected Gandhi's request to not be the first prime minister. As a Home Minister, Patel merged all parts of India under federal control . He persuaded the princes of 565 states of the impossibility of independence from the Indian republic, especially in the presence of growing opposition from their subjects. He proposed favourable terms for the merger, including creation of privy purses for the descendants of the rulers .Governor General Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Nehru and Patel formed the triumvirate which ruled India from 1948 to 1950.

It was the third time a commerative coin was issued for an Indian not holding the post of prime minister of India.It took place for Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B.R. Ambedkar earlier.

  This is a 2 rupee normal circular coin issued in respect of  Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.It is a copper -nickel coin weighing 6gm and having a diameter of 23mm.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

1974 ,10 paise -Planned Families, Food For All (Commemorative Coin)

In 1974 a commemorative 10 paisa  aluminium coin was issued which conveyed the message of Planned Families, Food For All.In the early 1970s, Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India, had  laid emphasis  on the family planning  programme to control  the rising population of India.She had the view that the growing population is one of the main reason for the growing shortage of food in India.Green Revolution programme was started after 1965 to increase the food production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains but still there was no food for all .Between 1961 and 1971, the country's population increased by 24.8 percent this was an alarming signal for Indira Gandhi and so the Indian Government started a family planning  programme to control  the rising population of India.So that there is food for all.
On one side of the coin there is an inverted triangle An inverted Red Triangle is the symbol for family planning health and contraception services in India.Within the triangle there is a family comprising of a husband,wife ,a son and a daughter.Which was very rare in those days and below the triangle corn sheafs are placed and it is written "PLANNED FAMILIES : FOOD FOR ALL"  written in hindi as well as in english.It is the normal size scalloped 10 paisa coin with the value and denomination written on one side

World Food Day Commemorative Coin

World Food Day is celebrated every year around the world on 16 October in honor of the date of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1945.World Food Day (WFD) was established by FAO's Member Countries at the Organization's 20th General Conference in November 1979. The Hungarian Delegation, led by the former Hungarian Minister of Agriculture and Food, Dr. Pál Romány has played an active role at the 20th Session of the FAO Conference and suggested the idea of celebrating the WFD worldwide. It has since been observed every year in more than 150 countries, raising awareness of the issues behind poverty and hunger.Since 1981, World Food Day has adopted a different theme each year, in order to highlight areas needed for action and provide a common focus.The theme for 1992 was Food and Nutrition and so this commemorative coin of 1992 bears the slogan Food and Nutrition

It is a commemorative copper-nickel one rupee coin On one side of the coin we have the 'Ashoka Sthamba' along with the slogan 'satyamev jayte'and the denomination and on the other side we have the slogan  Food and Nutrition in hindi and english and the word 'world food day' is written in hindi and english.The image of various food items like wheat,banana and various vegetables is depicted and on the top the logo of World Food Day is inscribed

15 YEARS OF I.C.D.S. (1 rupee coin)


Government of India proclaimed a National Policy on Children in August 1974 declaring children as, "supremely important asset". The policy provided the required framework for assigning priority to different needs of the child. The programme of the Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) was launched in 1975 seeking to provide an integrated package of services in a convergent manner for the holistic development of the child.The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme was conceived in 1975 with an integrated delivery package of early childhood services so that their synergistic effect can be taken full advantage of.The Scheme aims to improve the nutritional and health status of vulnerable groups including pre-school children, pregnant women and nursing mothers through providing a package of services including supplementary nutrition, pre-school education, immunization, health check-up, referral services and nutrition & health education. In addition, the Scheme envisages effective convergence of inter-sectoral services in the anganwadi centres.The Scheme targets the most vulnerable groups of population including children upto 6 years of age, pregnant women and nursing mothers belonging to poorest of the poor families and living in disadvantaged areas including backward rural areas, tribal areas and urban slums. In the year 1990  ICDS scheme completed its  15 years the RBI issued a coin on its 15th anniversary .



This is a copper-nickel one rupee coin weighing 6.05 gm and having a diameter of 26mm.On one side we have the 'Ashoka Sthamba' and the denomination and on the other side the logo of  ICDS is inscribed which is a symbolic representation of 'Child Care' -a child in the lap and above the logo 'Vasudhav Kutumbakam' is incribed  which means 'The whole world is like a family' and '15 years of ICDS' is written in english on one side and the same slogan is inscribed in hindi